Lots of research has been done by experts to maximize the use of GPS. Even today, GPS with high accuracy can be used to monitor ground movement, the idea is only mm in a year. Monitoring ground movements are useful for estimating earthquakes, both volcanic or tectonic movements. This technology can even be used in business, just like the geo fencing features for the location-based marketing campaigns.
The following are some examples of the use of GPS in several studies:
1. Geodynamics by placing monitoring points in selected locations, periodically or continuously to be carefully coordinated using the GPS survey method.
2. Ground deformation on the body of a volcano by placing several points in selected locations, its coordinates are carefully determined using the GPS survey method. By studying the pattern and speed of change of coordinates from these points from one survey to the next survey, the characteristics of the ground deformation in the body of the volcano can be calculated and studied further.
3. Study of the ionosphere and troposphere. GPS satellites emit electromagnetic wave signals that before being received by the GPS receiver antenna will pass through the medium layers of the atmosphere, namely the ionosphere and troposphere. In both of these layers, the GPS signal will experience interference (bias) so that the calculated distance will give a value that contains an error. Distance is used to calculate the position of a point. In the scope of GPS studies, these two layers become a bias that must be corrected before determining the position of the point.
4. Oceanographic studies using the GPS buoy system are used, among others, for the determination of offshore tides, beach tides, studies of current patterns, EWS tsunamis, and others. GPS can provide position accuracy up to a centimeter or millimeter accuracy. To achieve high accuracy using GPS in the GPS Buoy study, differential kinematic methods are used both in real-time (RTK) and cinematic post-processing. For some cases commonly used Differential GPS (DGPS).
5. Earthquake studies. GPS data can properly see the deformation that accompanies the stages of the mechanism of an earthquake. The study of the stages of this earthquake mechanism will be very useful in evaluating the potential for earthquake natural disasters, to improve mitigation efforts in the future.